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Archive for the ‘Home Children’ Category

RYE, MARIA SUSAN, social reformer was born on March 31, 1829 in London, England, daughter of Edward Rye, a solicitor, and Maria Tuppen. She  died unmarried on November 12, 1903  in Hemel Hempstead, England.

Maria Susan Rye was a leading figure in the mid-19th-century women’s movement in England, serving from 1855 to 1858 as secretary of the association that promoted the Married Women’s Property Bill and from 1859 as a founding member of the Society for Promoting the Employment of Women. In these years she worked with and for women of her own class. Both in her business as a law stationer, where women were employed as legal copyists, and through related firms, where others were trained as compositors and telegraphists, she strove to break down the regulations and social conventions that kept middleclass women from gaining economic independence.

More socially conservative than her colleagues in the employment society, with whom she would part company over the issue of female suffrage, Rye became concerned about the social and moral effects of women’s more prominent role outside the home. Contemporaries linked the predicament of unmarried gentlewomen in Britain to the marriage-market imbalance created by the emigration of more men than women. Rye herself argued that both Britain and the colonies benefited when gentlemen abroad were not obliged to marry beneath them. Between 1861 and 1867, under the auspices of the Female Middle-Class Emigration Society, of which she was honorary secretary, Rye travelled with parties of adult women to the Australian colonies and New Zealand.

In 1868 rising costs and adverse Australian publicity caused her to consider ports nearer to Britain, in Canada. Criticism by newspapermen and public officials of the suitability, supervision, and placement of the 200 women she transported up the St Lawrence River later that year led Rye to shift her attention, beginning in 1869, to the rescue of poorhouse and orphaned children, the work for which she is best known in Canada. Between 1869 and 1896 her agency brought 3,623 female children to the dominion, a large proportion of them wards of the English poor-law unions which sponsored their emigration, and placed them from the reception centre Rye operated in a converted court-house and jail at Niagara (Niagara-on-the-Lake), Ont. Rye handled the financial affairs of the home and seems to have travelled to Canada most years, even as she became older.

Unlike Annie Macpherson, who also began bringing children to Canada in 1869, and the majority of other British agencies and individuals who together brought perhaps 80,000 girls and boys to Canada over the next 50 years, Rye did not identify with any evangelical Christian group. A devout but traditional Anglican, she kept aloof from low-church enthusiasms. She was foremost a social engineer. In her writing for the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science and in frequent letters to the London Times, she showed a brusque detachment from her young charges and a penchant for the expedient. These tendencies led the senior Canadian emigration agent in Britain, William Dixon, to characterize her in November 1868 as a “passenger agent of the sharpest description.” In a famous broadsheet the following year, George Cruikshank, the illustrator of Dickens, caricatured her shovelling lilliputian youngsters, “like so much guano,” into a giant mud cart.

Of the 1,100 girls Rye brought to Canada before 1875, all but 200 were pauper wards of the British state, and she hoped that the Local Government Board would take over the program. This prospect was scotched in 1875 when Andrew Doyle, the board inspector deputed to inquire into the Canadian circumstances of former workhouse children, singled out her placement methods for criticism as unsystematic and inattentive. Yet over the next two decades, with only brief interruptions when the apprehensions of the English Board of Guardians about her work became acute, she regularly brought parties of girls to Canada, protected by a receptive public there and by the interventions of well-placed British allies, including Lord Shaftesbury and the Marquess of Lorne [Campbell*] and his wife, Princess Louise. From 1871 Rye received a civil-list pension of £70.

In 1895, by which time Ontario was beginning to examine the regulation of juvenile immigration [see John Joseph Kelso], she transferred her distribution centres at Peckham (London) and Niagara to the Church of England Waifs and Strays Society, and retired with her sister to Hemel Hempstead. Maria S. Rye died of intestinal cancer in 1903 at their residence, Baconsthorpe.

……from the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online

by Joy Parr

Documentation on the career of Maria Susan Rye is provided in the author’s study Labouring children: British immigrant apprentices to Canada, 1869–1924 (London and Montreal, 1980).

Two pamphlets published in Canada in defence of Rye’s emigration work have been made available on microfiche by the CIHM and are listed in its Reg.: Charges made against Miss Rye before the Poor Law Board at Islington, and her reply thereto (n.p., [1874]) and Further letters furnished to the Department of Agriculture by Miss Rye, in rebuttal of MrDoyle’s report ([Niagara (Niagara-on-the-Lake), Ont.?, 1875?]).

Andrew Doyle’s charges, and Rye’s response to them, were published in pamphlet form and in G.B., Parl., House of Commons papers, 1875, 63, no.9: 255–98, Copy “of a report to the right honourable the president of the Local Government Board, by Andrew Doyle, esquire, local government inspector, as to the emigration of pauper children to Canada”, esp. 277, 284, 286; and 1877, 71, no.392: 19–36, Copy “of letter addressed by Miss Rye to the president of the Local Government Board. . . . Doyle refuted Rye’s defence in 1877, 71, no.263: 1–18, Copy “of the reply of MrDoyle to Miss Rye’s report. . . . Canadian listings for the three reports are available in Canadiana, 1867–1900.

NA, RG 17, A I, 25, no.2252. Times (London), 22 April 1875. DNB. DNZB. Lee Holcombe, Victorian ladies at work: middleclass working women in England and Wales, 1850–1914 (Newton Abbot, Eng., 1973). Andrew Jones and Leonard Rutman, In the children’s aid: JJKelso and child welfare in Ontario (Toronto, 1981). Ivy Pinchbeck and Margaret Hewitt, Children in English society (2v., London, [1969–73]). Gillian Wagner, Children of the empire (London, 1982).

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British Home Children

HOME CHILDREN

Between 1869 and 1939, about 100,000 child immigrants, casualties of unemployment and poverty in Britain, were uprooted from their homes and families. With hopes of giving them new lives in Canada, British agencies sent children to receiving homes like this one. From there, a few of the younger children were adopted into Canadian families, but most were apprenticed as agricultural labourers or domestic servants. Often deprived of education and the comforts of family life, Home Children suffered loneliness and prejudice. Their experience reveals a poignant chapter in Canadian immigration history.

Entre 1869 et 1939, le chômage et la pauvreté en Grande-Bretagne arrachèrent environ 100 000 enfants à leur foyer. Dans l’espoir de leur procurer une vie meilleure, des agences britanniques les envoyèrent au Canada dans des hospices comme celui-ci. Par la suite, quelques-uns des plus jeunes furent adoptés, mais la plupart devinrent des ouvriers agricoles ou des domestiques. Souvent privés d’éducation et des joies de la vie familiale, ces petits immigrés subirent les préjugés et connurent la solitude. Leur expérience demeure un témoinage poignant dans l’histoire de l’immigration au Canada.

…from Historic Plaques of Ontario…plaque located at Stratford, Ontario

 

Home Children was the child migration scheme founded by Annie MacPherson in 1869, under which more than 100,000 children were sent from the United Kingdom to Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa.

The practice of sending poor or orphaned children to English and later British settler colonies, to help alleviate the shortage of labour, began in 1618, with the rounding-up and transportation of one hundred English vagrant children to the Virginia Colony. In the 18th century labour shortages in the overseas colonies also encouraged the kidnapping of children for work in the Americas, and large numbers of children were forced to migrate, most of them from Scotland. This practice continued until it was exposed in 1757, following a civil action against Aberdeen merchants and magistrates for their involvement in the trade.

The Children’s Friend Society was founded in London in 1830 as “The Society for the Suppression of Juvenile Vagrancy through the reformation and emigration of children”. In 1832 the first group of children was sent to the Cape Colony in South Africa and the Swan River Colony in Australia, and in August 1833 230 children were shipped to Toronto and New Brunswick, Canada.

The main pioneers of child migration in the nineteenth century were the Scottish Evangelical Christian, Annie MacPherson, her sister Louisa Birt, and Londoner, Maria Rye. Whilst working with poor children in London in the late 1860s MacPherson was appalled by the child slavery of the matchbox industry and resolved to devote her life to these children. In 1870 she bought a large workshop and turned it into the “Home of Industry”, where poor children could work and be fed and educated. She later became convinced that the real solution for these children lay in emigration to a country of opportunity and started an emigration fund. In the first year of the fund’s operation, 500 children, trained in the London homes, were shipped to Canada. McPherson opened distribution homes in Canada in the towns of Belleville and Galt in Ontario and persuaded her sister, Louisa, to open a third home in the village of Knowlton, seventy miles from Montreal. This was the beginning of a massive operation which sought to find homes and careers for 14,000 of Britain’s needy children.

CHILD EMIGRATION TO CANADA The attention of the Dominion Government has been drawn to the fact that the children sent to Canada from England are street waifs and workhouse paupers, and that the professional philanthropists engaged in the work are largely prompted by mercenary and not charitable motives. A demand will be made that parliament should investigate the matter before voting any money to promote this kind of immigration.

The Star, 18 April 1891

Maria Rye also worked amongst the poor in London and had arrived in Ontario with 68 children (50 of whom were from Liverpool) some months earlier than McPherson, with the blessing of the Archbishop of Canterbury and The Times newspaper. Rye, who had been placing women emigrants in Canada since 1867, opened her home at Niagara-on-the-Lake in 1869, and by the turn of the century had settled some 5,000 children, mostly girls, in Ontario.[5]

The emigration schemes were not without their critics and there were many rumours of ill-treatment of the children by their employers and of profiteering by the organisers of the schemes, particularly Maria Rye.[6] In 1874 The London Board of Governors decided to send a representative, named Andrew Doyle, to Canada to visit the homes and the children to see how they were faring. Doyle’s report praised the women and their staff, especially MacPherson, saying that they were inspired by the highest motives, but condemned almost everything else about the enterprise.[7] He said that the attitude of the women in grouping together children from the workhouses, who he said were mostly of good reputation, with street children, who he considered mostly thieves, was naive and had caused nothing but trouble in Canada. He was also critical of the checks made on the children after they were placed with settlers, which in Rye’s case were mostly non-existent, and said that:

Because of Miss Rye’s carelessness and Miss MacPherson’s limited resources, thousands of British children, already in painful circumstances, were cast adrift to be overworked or mistreated by the settlers of early Canada who were generally honest but often hard taskmasters.

The Canadian House of Commons subsequently set up a select committee to examine Doyle’s findings and there was much controversy generated by his report in Britain, but the schemes continued with some changes[9] and were copied in other countries of the British Empire.[10]

In 1909, South African-born Kingsley Fairbridge founded the “Society for the Furtherance of Child Emigration to the Colonies” which was later incorporated as the Child Emigration Society. The purpose of the society, which later became the Fairbridge Foundation, was to educate orphaned and neglected children and train them in farming practices at farm schools located throughout the British Empire. Fairbridge emigrated to Australia in 1912, where his ideas received support and encouragement. According to the British House of Commons Child Migrant’s Trust Report, “it is estimated that some 150,000 children were dispatched over a period of 350 years—the earliest recorded child migrants left Britain for the Virginia Colony in 1618, and the process did not finally end until the late 1960s.” It was widely believed by contemporaries that all of these children were orphans, but it is now known that most had living parents some of whom had no idea of the fate of their children after they were left in care homes, and some led to believe that their children had been adopted somewhere in Britain.

Child emigration was largely suspended for economic reasons during the Great Depression of the 1930s but was not completely terminated until the 1970s.

…from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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AnnieMacPersonAnnie Parlane MacPherson (1833 – November 27, 1904) was a Scottish evangelical Quaker and philanthropist who pioneered child emigration to Canada.

She was born in Campsie, by Milton, Stirlingshire, and educated in Glasgow and at the Home and Colonial Training College in Gray’s Inn Road, London.

After her father died she moved to Cambridge, but soon after returned to London. Touched by the poverty in the eastend of London in 1868 she opened the Home of Industry at 60 Commercial Road in Spitalfield.

In the 1870s, she organized that Home children were sent to Canada from her home in London also had arrangements with Barnardo’s Homes of Dr. Barnardo in London, Quarriers homes in Scotland, and Smyly homes in Dublin, Ireland similar to arrangements with English and Scottish homes   in Canada she had set up a number of Homes, Marchmont, Galt in Ontario and in Knowlton Quebec

The Doyle Report of 1875 into the emigration of children from these homes cast a shadow over the process of exporting children although it acknowledged the benevolent motives of MacPherson and others.

Her sister Louisa MacPherson married Charles Henry Birt, and helped her sister in her mission. In 1873 she established a home in Liverpool called The Sheltering Home.

MacPherson died in 1904.

…from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Belleville

As a philanthropist Billa Flint donated lands for churches and schools, and he was an original supporter of social worker Annie Macpherson who in 1869 opened a distributing home, Marchmont, for child emigrants from British cities.

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Herbert Joseph Russell was born in June 1887 in St. Saviour, Southwark,, Surrey, England and came to Canada as a British Home Child departing from Liverpool on April 10, 1902 and arriving on April 18, 1902 at Halifax Nova Scotia aboard the S.S. Ionian as part of the Rev. Robert Wallace party destination to Belleville, Ontario with 47 children to the Marchmont Home.

He was the son of Alfred Benjamin Russell who was born in 1860 in Camberwell, Surrey, England. Alfred was a wine merchant and he died in March 1888 in Camberwell, Surrey, England
He married  Amelia Booth at  St. James St Olave Southwark Surrey England on September 25, 1882

Shopman Wine & Spirit Trade – 1 Reverdy Rd. Bermondsey, Surrey, England

Family:

Florrie Russell was born in 1885 in Surrey, England

Alfred Russell was born in 1886 in England and came to Canada as a British Home Child and is listed at Marchmont in Belleville         Russel, Alfred 12 yeas old was in care at Oldham departed Liverpool April 8, 1897 and arrived April 18, 1897  at Halifax Nova Scotia aboard the ship Vancouver destination Belleville, Ontario (Marchmont) #26672

 

 

Alfred B Russell in household of Alfred Russell, “England and Wales Census, 1881”
Name: Alfred B Russell
Age (Original): 21
Gender: Male
Birth Year: 1860
Birthplace: Camberwell, Surrey, England
Relationship to Head of Household: Son
Marital Status: Single
Occupation: Shopman Wine & Spirit Trade
Address: 1 Reverdy Rd
Event Place: Bermondsey, Surrey, England
Disability:
Record Type: Household
GS Film number: 1341130
Affiliate Publication Number: RG11
Piece/Folio: 571 / 53
Page Number: 30
Household Gender Age Birthplace
Head Alfred Russell M 43 Peckham, Surrey, England
Son Alfred B Russell M 21 Camberwell, Surrey, England
Daughter Mary M Russell F 17 Bermondsey, Surrey, England
Daughter Amy A Russell F 15 Bermondsey, Surrey, England
Son Sydney D Russell M 9 Bermondsey, Surrey, England
Son Rowland G Russell M 3 Bermondsey, Surrey, England

Russell1a

Alfred B Russell in household of Alfred Russell, “England and Wales Census, 1871”
Name: Alfred B Russell
Event Type: Census
Event Date: 1871
Gender: Male
Age: 11
Relationship to Head of Household: Son
Birthplace: Camberwell
Schedule Type: Household
Registration District: St Olave Southwark
Sub-District: St James
Parish: Bermondsey
County: London, Surrey
Household Gender Age Birthplace
Self Alfred Russell M 33 Hull, Yorkshire
Wife Mary H Russell F 34 Peckham, Surrey
Sister Louisa Russell F 16 Camberwell
Son Alfred B Russell M 11 Camberwell
Son Charles E Russell M 9 Bermondsey
Daughter Dellary Russell F 6 Rotherhithe, Surrey

Residences:

1912 Thorndale (Middlesex Cty)

Russell1b

Marriage: 

Herbert Joseph Russell  son of Alfred Benjamin Russell and Amelia Medorf of Newington, England was married to Mary Ellen Dewhirst  daughter of Isaac Dewhirst and Harriet Mitchell of Halifax, Yorkshire, England  on March 25, 1912  at Thorndale , Ontario witnesess were Mrs. H. Snell and Ann Fletcher of Thorndale by Rev. Horace W. Snell

Russell13a

Family:

Dad1SEPIAHarold William Russell was born on July 23, 1914 in Ilderton, Ontario

ILDERTON, a post village in Middlesex County, Ontario, on London, Huron & Bruce divison G.T.R., 4 miles from Arva and 12 miles from London, the nearest banking point. It contains a sawmill, 2 stores, 2 hotels, branch bank and a telegraph office and 3 churches. Pop. 200 ...from Lovell’s 1906 Canada Gazetteer

Gordon Alfred Russell was born at 8:00 am January 2, 1918 at Thorndale, Ontario West Nissouri Twp, Middlesex County, Ontario Delivered by Dr. McFadden at the house on the 3rd Con. Of West Nissouri Township.

THORNDALE, a post village in Middlesex County, Ontario, near the north branch of the Thames River, and on the London branch of the G.T.R. It contains 2 churches, 2 hotels, a grist mill, saw mill,  cheese box factory, 4 stores, a branch bank (Home), express and 2 telegraph offices and a lumber yard. Pop. 550  ...from Lovell’s 1906 Canada Gazetteer

ThorndaleSEPIABaptized on March 28, 1918 at Thorndale Methodist Church by Rev. W. Roy Osborne

1918 – lived on the east side of the 3rd Concession of West Nissouri Thorndale, the house was owned by the Fox family

1919 – moved to the small brick cottage on the north side of Fairhall side road at Friendly Corners

1920 – moved to the east side of the 5th Concession south of the Fairhall side road owned by the Bestard family

1922 – moved to the east side of the 4th Concession to a large brick house owned by the Hugh Jones family at Friendly Corners. Started school at the corner of the 4th Concession and Thorndale sideroad and the family attended Thorndale Methodist Church

BeltonSEPIA

1924 – moved to the west side of the 5th Concession at Belton, Ontario also known as Kelly’s Siding. Lived on 2 acres of land with a small barn. They had a horse called Topsy, a Jersey cow, hens and chickens. He and his brother Harold raised either two pigs or a calf and they were theirs to sell. The money was deposited in the Home Bank in Thorndale which went bankrupt in 1927 and they lost most of their money.

KellysStnSEPIA

KELLY’S SIDING, a station on the. G.T.R. (Toronto and London branch), 15 miles from London, and 16 miles from Stratford...from Lovell’s 1906 Canada Gazetteer

Their father was a railway sectionmaster based at the Belton Station.

He and Harold attended a one room school PS #12 West Nissouri on the 6th Concession. There were between 25 and 28 students. Some classmates, Bill Haves, Winifred and Bruce Patterson, Marion and Eric Facey, Jean and Stuart Elgie, Dorothy Patterson, Harold and Walter Davis, Bill Switzer, Jean, Homer and Hughie McKay, Olive Box, Rea Henderson, and 3 Bannerman children.

They attended Wellburn Methodist Church and drove there in a buggy in summer and a cutter in winter.

Family Friend were: Robert Haves, Jimmy Box, Roy Facey, Sam Facey Sr., Bob Patterson,

1927 – His parents bought a piano for him and he took music lessons in Thorndale, seven miles from home, and he had to travel by train on Saturday’s having to buy his own ticket, have lunch with friends, go for his lesson at 1;00PM and then wait for an hour at the station to catch the train home.

1928 – He worked in the summer for three brothers who each owned a farm earning $1.00 a day plus lunch and sometime supper. All he had to do was drive and look after the horses during haying and harvest

1929 – The family moved to the south side of Hwy #2 near Crumlin. The farm was owned by a Mr. Thompson. He attended Dorchester Public School and the family went to Crumlin United Church. On Saturdays he walk 2 miles to take music lesson at his teacher’s home.

CRUMLIN, a post viliage in Middlesex County, Ontario, and a station on the C.P.R , 5 miles from
London. Pop., about 100  ..from Lovell’s 1906 Canada Gazetteer

DORCHESTER, or DORCHESTER STATION, a post village on the River Thames, in Middlesex County, Ontario, on the G.T.R., 10 miles from London. It has 3 churches (Episcopal, Presbyterian and Methodist), telegraph, express and Bell telephone offices, flour, saw and planing mills, cheese and mattress factories, 2 hotels, 6 stores, and branch of Bank of Toronto and peat plant factory. Pop. 600. ..from Lovell’s 1906 Canada Gazetteer

1930 – moved to Thamesford and lived on the first street north of #2 Hwy or Main St. He attended Thamesford Public School and passed his High School entrance exams. During the summer he worked on the farm of Gordon Vinning, The family attended the Thamesford United Church.

THAMESFORD, a post village in Oxford County, Ontario, on the middle branch of the Thames River, and a station on the C.P.R., 13 miles east of London. It has 3 churches (Episcopal, Methodist and  Presbyterian), 12 stores, 2 hotels, 1 public library, 1 bank (Traders), 1 good school, 1 planing mill, 1 grist mill, 1 large stave factory, 1 sash and door, 1 barrel and 2 carriage factories, 1 printing and newspaper office (“Thamesford Star,” weekly), besides express and telegraph offices. Pop. about 600 ..from Lovell’s 1906 Canada Gazetteer

1931 – Moved to the corner of the 9th Concession and Hwy #2 and his father worked on the Mercer farm which was just across the road. He attended the two room Thamesford High School until March of 1932 and worked during the summer for Roy Facey.

1932 – Family moved to Toronto – 28 Bloem Avenue, York Township, Toronto where he attended York Memorial Collegiate until the end of June. In September he went by streetcar to Weston High and Vocational School in Weston Ontario. The family attended St. Cuthbert’s United Church, at the corners of Eglinton Ave. and Dufferin Street in Toronto which was initially a Presbyterian Church, Fairbank. Begun in 1889, the congregation moved from Fairbank Avenue to the church’s present location in 1914, expanding the building in 1954. It joined the United Church in 1925 and assumed the name St. Cuthbert’s. In 1931 it was joined by Hillsdale United, formerly North Earlscourt Methodist. The church closed in 2001

1933 – moved to 48 Jesmond Ave (Rogers Road and Oakwood Ave) and he spent the summer back in Belton working on the farm of Bob Haves.

1934 – spent the summer back in Belton working on the farm of Bob Haves.

1935 – moved to 42 Lanark Ave (Eglinton and Oakwood) In June he work for 3 months over the summer for Spanner Products Ltd. At Yonge and Elm St. who made kitchen and bar furniture and car battery separators earning $.15 and hour. In September he went back to Weston Vocational School and worked in the woodwork shop as an assistant to the teacher Mr. Arthurs

1936 – In January he started working for D.H. Howden & Co. Ltd. At 1 Church Street, a wholesale hardware company earning $8.00 a week to start. On July 1st long weekend he rode his bicycle to Thamesford and Belton via #5 and #2 highways and returned via #7, #8 and #5 highways.

1937 – He paid $275 to buy a 1932 Ford Model “B” 4 cylinder auto with his friend John Ward
Made trips to Shallow Lake near Owen Sound, to Kingston for a week with Archie Harvey, to Belton, Detroit, Niagara Falls and Grand Bend.

1939 – moved to 138 Woodmount Ave near Danforth and Woodbine and the attended Woodbine Heights  United Church and the OWEGOS young peoples group. He went skiing with Lloyd Edhouse to Dagmar and many other places. He drove his aunt Hannah to Belleville for Harold and Madelene Seeny’s wedding.

1940 – Met Miriam LePage at the OWEGO class and they made trips to the Orillia Trailer Park, Queenston and Port Credit. He also made a weekend trip to Tobermory with Miriam, her sister Ruth and Elleanor Pritchard.

December 28 became engaged to Miriam.

Baptism:

Gordon Alfred Russell was born on January 2, 1918 the son of Herbert Joseph Russell and Mary Ellen (Dewhirst) and was baptized on March 28, 1918 at Thorndale Ontario (Middlesex Cty) by Rev. W.R. Osborne.

Barnardo Orphans

RUSSELL, Herbert – 14 S.S. IONIAN April 18, 1902. This ship left Liverpool April 10 1902 arrived Halifax April 18 1902 crossing the Atlantic  Ocean in 7 days  …from Manchester and Salford Boys’ and Girls’ Refuges and Children’s Aid Society, Frances Street, Strangeways. Apply to  the Hon. Secs., L.K. Shaw and G. R. Kirlew.

The Liverpool Courier Liverpool, Lancashire Monday Oct 11, 1897 page 4

The Sheltering Home

To the Editor of the Daily Post

Sir – I have just returned from placing out our fifty first party of children in Canada and have already entered upon our twenty sixth winter of work among the destitute widows and orphans of Liverpool. Needy boys and girls can be received any day by applying at the Sheltering Home between 10 and 4 o’clock.

Our experience this year in Canada is that the good openings for our boys and girls are still very numerous and as Canada seems to entering on a more prosperous season there is likely to be a great demand for our young people next year. So many of the older hands are going off to the new railways in the far west that the farmers in the eastern part of Canada will likely find themselves shorter of help than ever after next spring. The harvest has been abundant and prices are good and so they will be in a position to pay better wages.

The outlook here in Lancashire seems sufficiently gloomy and therefore we think that it is a wise thing to assist and encourage the emigration of young people who are willing to go and build homes in the new land under our Queen’s rule. Help them to go while young and they will have fewer bad habits to unlearn and will easily adopt to the ways of a new colony and will, as they grow older, become helpers of others.

One of our girls who was brought up by a Canadian farmer and who married his son, has adopted the youngest child we took out this summer having no children of her own.

Several other of our boys and girls, now married, have given homes and employment to our younger ones. Many send for a younger brother or sister and find homes for them near themselves.

Contributions are very much needed to enable us to close out financial year on the 31 inst without debt. About 500 pounds is required. Will friends help before this date. Gifts will be gratefully received and acknowledged by our home manager, E C Thin, Esq, 24 Chapel Street

yours truly Louisa Birt Oct 5, 1897

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