Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category


The History of Simcoe County  – Andrew F. Hunter, 1863 – 1940

The year 1839 was the Centenary of Methodism – the one hundredth year after Wesley established his first societies in England for the promotion of religious work.

The memorable event was celebrated in Upper Canada by holding in all the principal congregations, Centenary meetings, each of which was attended and addressed by a deputation of divines appointed for the purpose.

Simcoe county was included in the district apportioned to the Revs. William Case, Joseph Stinson, M. Richer, M.A., and William Ryerson. An important centenary meeting in the annals of local Methodism was held at Kempenfeldt, and it created a deep interest amongst the adherents of this denomination. This meeting was central both as to its locality and as to the interest manifested in its proceedings.

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1895 Methodist Conference – Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan


Moose Jaw  Rev. T. Ferrier

Saskatoon  Rev. T.G. Bethell

Prince Albert  Rev. W.A. Cook B.A.

Port Arthur  Rev. John McLean

Edmonton  Rev. G.W. Dean

Regina  Rev. S.R. Brown B.A.

Boharm  Rev. Joseph Robinson

Pasque/Estevan  Rev. E. Taylor

Waseana  Rev. A. Barner

Buck Lake  Rev. W.S. Reid

Qu’ Appelle  Rev. W.C. Bunt

Indian Head  Rev. G.F. McCullagh

Red Deer Hill  Rev. F.M. Wootton

Shell River  Rev. W.R.F. Browne

Colleston  Rev. H.J. Galley

Kinistine  Rev. A.R. Robinson

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Epworth League

1912 Lacombe Junior Epsworth League

Lacombe Alberta Junior Epworth League – 1912



The Epworth League is a Methodist young adult association for individuals ages 18–35. It traces back to the founding of the organization by the United Methodist Church’s predecessor denomination, the Methodist Episcopal church, formed in 1889 at Cleveland, Ohio, by the combination of five young people’s organizations then existing. At its conception, the purpose of the league the promotion of intelligent and vital piety among the young people of the Church:

The League existed in both the Northern and Southern branches of the Methodist Episcopal denomination and also in the Methodist church of Canada.

…from Wikipedia.com

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Guelph Advertiser
February 27, 1851

The fifteenth Annual Meeting of the Guelph Branch Bible Society, took place in the Wesleyan Chapel, in this town, on the evening of Tuesday, the 18th inst.;

The chair was taken by C. J. Mickle, esq. and the Chapel was filled on the occasion.

The annual report was read by Mr. Hough, Secretary of the Society; and the following resolutions were passed:

Moved by Mr. A. Stephens, seconded by Rev R.Torrance,

1. That the report be adopted, and printed under the direction of the Committee.

Moved by the Rev. J.G. McGregor, seconded by the Rev. C. Gregor,

2. That this Branch Auxiliary Bible Society, considering the efforts of the worldly and unbelieving to pre-occupy the minds of men with the teeming productions of the press, which are either useless or positively hurtful to the interests of true religions: recognize it as their bouden duty as believers in devine revelation [sic] to endeavour to promote every scriptural scheme which has in view the spread of the pure Word of God, which contains the only effectual antidote against the moral poison thus intensively introduced and circulated by these impious and immoral publications.

Moved by the Rev. Spencer, seconded by the Rev. J.J. Braine

3. That in view of the determined efforts of the Man of Sin to oppose the truths of the Word of God, this Meeting would be impressed with the necessity of equally zealous efforts on the part of all true Protestants to promote the universal circulation of the Holy Scriptures, as the only and the sufficient rule, both of faith and practice.

Moved by the Rev. J. Richardson, seconded by John Inglis, esq.,

4. That the efforts of the Upper Canada Bible Society, in connection with this Branch, are crowned by the blessing of Almighty God, and that this consideration demands our gratitude, and should stimulate us to increased exertions; that the thanks of this meeting are due to the officers of this Society, and especially the Collectors, and that the following persons be appointed for the ensuing year:

President  — C. J. Mickle, esq.,

Vice Presidents – Revds C. Gregor, R. Torrance, W.S. Griffin, J.G. McGregor, John J. Braine, and J. Spencer;

A. J. Ferguson, esq., M.P.P. John McLean, esq., and Dr. Orton

Treasurer and Depository – T. Sandilands, esq.,

Secretary – Mr. James Hough

With a Committee of twelve gentlemen and eight ladies – Collectors

Charltens Directory of Guelph 1875 – Religions and Benevolant Societies:

Tract Society – This society was organized about the year 1857, and is a branch of the Upper Canada Tract Society

Bible Society – Guelph Branch Bible Society, held in the rooms of the Young Men’s Christian Association, Wyndham street, meets the first week in January of each year.

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Historicist: In Potter’s Field
By Jamie Bradburn


The original tombstone for hanged rebels Samuel Lount and Peter Matthews. A larger memorial was built beside it in the Necropolis in 1893.

Bloor and Yonge:  subway junction, pedestrian scramble, long-term construction hoarding, gateway to Yorkville’s high-end shopping. While waiting on the northwest corner for the traffic light to turn, you may notice a silver plaque on the side of 2 Bloor West. Long before the beautiful people entered the neighbourhood, this was a site where the city’s pioneering outcasts received a respectful final rest. As the first cemetery in Toronto that wasn’t tied to a particular religious faith, it set the course for future burial grounds where almost anyone could be buried.

By the mid-1820s, burying the dead was becoming an issue in “Muddy York.” As people moved into small dwellings, graves on personal property grew rare. Cemeteries existed, but only for particular faiths. If you were a good Anglican, Methodist, Presbyterian or Roman Catholic, there wasn’t a problem. But if you didn’t subscribe to those branches of Christianity, suffered from mental illness, embraced a dissipated lifestyle, or had committed murder, your remains were bound for rejection out of fear they would foul consecrated ground.

This raised the ire of prominent local figures like the ever-fiery William Lyon Mackenzie. “We think that to perpetuate sectarianism even beyond the grave,” Mackenzie wrote in a December 1825 edition of the Colonial Advocate, “is very preposterous in a Christian country, and are sure that the majority of the liberal and well-informed throughout the earth, think as we do on this subject.” Mackenzie urged the government of Upper Canada to create legislation so that in “some convenient part of each township” of the colony, land would be set aside for a publicly operated non-denominational burial ground.

Mackenzie was among those present at a meeting held the previous month for “inhabitants of York friendly to the purchasing of a public burial place for all classes and sects.” Another attendee was merchant Thomas Carfrae Jr., who shared Mackenzie’s Scottish background but not his radical politics. Carfrae’s campaigning for a petition to support an open cemetery resulted in a parliamentary act approving the creation of such a site in January 1826. Five months later, six acres were purchased for 75 pounds by Carfrae and four other men, all of whom served as the new cemetery’s first trustees.

Sadly, the first burial was Carfrae’s infant daughter Mary, who was laid to rest on July 18, 1826. Four more members of his family joined Mary in the cemetery over the next seven years. Despite these many causes for grief, Carfrae was a busy man—besides his role in establishing Potter’s Field, he was also involved in the founding of the York Fire Company, St. Andrew’s Church, and the York Mechanics institute (the forerunner of the Toronto Public Library). He served as an alderman on Toronto’s first city council in 1834, was appointed customs collector in 1835, and was named harbour master in 1838. He reunited with his family in Potter’s Field following his death from a stroke in June 1841 at the age of 44.

Throughout its existence, the cemetery was known by a variety of names. The official name was the York General Burying Ground (which was changed to Toronto after the city renamed itself in 1834), but was alternately known as the Strangers’ Burying Ground, as those tended to be the types who made up the early burials. The name that caught on, Potter’s Field, was a biblical reference to the fate of Judas and his blood money in Matthew 27:7, which was used to buy a “potter’s field, to bury strangers in.”

Burials were light during the early years, until a cholera epidemic hit during the summer of 1832. Besides the heavy toll that disease claimed, burials increased as the new village of Yorkville grew around the cemetery. When compiling the causes of death for those buried in Potter’s Field, genealogist Elizabeth Hancocks was struck by “the nature of the bare-fact entries, many of which seem to possess an eloquence that carries well beyond the grave.” Among the frequent forms of death that caught her attention: “felled by tree.”

By the end of the 1840s, the cemetery neared capacity. As the population grew in Toronto and Yorkville, there was concern that Potter’s Field would run out of space for future burials. The trustees successfully lobbied the colonial government for legislation that widened their ranks and allowed the purchase of more land. The Necropolis, which had been established independently of the trust in 1850, relieved the pressure on Potter’s Field, but not enough for the residents of Yorkville. Just as bohemians and hippies were redeveloped out of the neighbourhood a century later, the dead were given the boot in 1855 after the government honoured a petition to close the cemetery.

The trustees were given the power to sell the land once all 6,685 people buried there were moved elsewhere. Families of the deceased were offered the choice of moving their loved ones’ remains themselves or having the remains transplanted to new plots in the Necropolis. Among those moved east were the Carfrae family and 1837 rebellion martyrs Samuel Lount and Peter Matthews.

One problem: there were plenty of remains that nobody claimed. To the consternation of Yorkville residents, and presumably those eager to redevelop the land, the cemetery sat for two more decades. By 1874 everyone’s patience had run out, so the Ontario government gave the trustees the right to remove any remains that were still in Potter’s Field 20 years after it had officially closed. When the anniversary passed, the unclaimed were moved to both the Necropolis and the new Mount Pleasant Cemetery. As the Globe noted when Mount Pleasant officially opened in 1876, “In a mound here lie the bones of about 3,000 persons which could not be identified. The remains of old and young persons of every Christian denomination, coloured and white people alike, here rest together in one common grave.”

By 1881, moving was finished and the site was soon built over. “Where the marble columns once stood, and the house to receive the departed was once erected,” wrote the anonymous scribe of an early 20th century guide to Toronto’s cemeteries, “now stand the splendid villas of the living.” Though the silver plaque is the only reminder of Potter’s Field’s existence within Yorkville, grave markers survive in Mount Pleasant Cemetery and the Necropolis. The trust that operated the cemetery went through numerous name changes before adopting its current identity as the Mount Pleasant Group. Some graveyards that had been strictly denominational, like the Anglican-run St. James, gradually began permitting burials of those who didn’t subscribe to the operator’s faith. Though sectarian cemeteries continue to exist, the inclusive visions of Thomas Carfrae Jr. and William Lyon Mackenzie that created Potter’s Field were realized throughout Ontario.

Additional material from Historical Sketch Toronto, Canada 1826-1905 (Toronto: Toronto General Burying Grounds Trust, 1905), Potter’s Field Cemetery 1826-1855 otherwise called The Strangers’ Burying Ground compiled by Elizabeth Hancock (Toronto: Generation Press, 1983), the December 8, 1825 edition of the Colonial Advocate, and the November 6, 1876 edition of the Globe.

Every Saturday, Historicist looks back at the events, places, and characters that have shaped Toronto into the city we know today.

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A sermon delivered by Rev. Alexander Sturgeon Byrne
in London, Ontario, 18 May 1850

“And they all with one consent began to make excuse.” – Luke xiv.18

The excuses of sinners are too many to enumerate; but we would direct your attention to a few of the most usual and important.

I – I have too many worldly possessions.
II – I have many temporal embarrassments.
III – I have ungodly relations and friends.
IV. – The opinions of Christians disagree.
V. – The prefessors of religion are inconsistant.
VI. – Religious restraints are too severe.
VII. – I am too unworthy.
VIII. – I do not feel my need of conversion.

In proclaiming the Gospel of Christ, the messanger of mercy is discouraged by two classes of characters: the profane Infidel and the formal Christian. In the Infidel he has to contest with a variety of ingenious objections to the authenticity and the doctrines of Holy Scripture; and to overpower the subtility of carnal reasoning with the manly force of reasonable and sacred arguments. This can be done with comparative ease. Had we to deal with reason only, truth would soon triumph in the conquest and the salvation of many souls.

In the formal Christian, he meets with other difficulties. Distorted arguments, chased from their “refuge of lies,” are exposed and ridiculed to his view; and reason is compelled to acquiesce in the force of reason and Scriptural truth. But still he is unwilling to leave the pleasures of sin, and seek an experimental acquaintance with the pleasures of renewing grace. Argument after argument reflects in its beams upon his understanding in vain. The spiritual banquet of Gospel blessings is spread before him, but it fails to attract his attention. Sabbath after Sabbath, sermon after sermon, either by argument, instruction, or warning, convey the joyous invitation.”Come for all things are now ready,” Nevertheless, now as formerly, “They all begin with one consent to make excuse.”

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Rawdon Quebec

Sunday Journal Entries
Sunday, January 3rd, 1836 to Sunday, December 25, 1836

GEORGE COPPING  was born on June 11, 1780 in Hatfield Broad Oak, Essex Cty., England

and was married to ELIZABETH SAGGERS, in London, 5th June, 1806  Sailed for Canada on the SS “Lively”, 5th May, 1811 Landed in Quebec 2nd July, 1811

Sunday, 3rd January, 1836. This is a fine day and I am very sick with a cold. 5 of the children were at church. Mr. Law was here and dined with us.

Sunday, 24th January, 1836. This is a dull day and James and Mary are over at the Village at Church if Mr. Reid is come home. Joseph and Eliza are gone over to Mr. Dowler’s.

Sunday, 31st January, 1836. This is a mild day with a little snow and James and Thos. are gone to church at Kildare and Molly Dunn is starting for Home and Mary is gone …. young Robert Pollock was over here for Henry ..

Sunday, 7th February, 1836. This is a fine day and my wife and myself, Thomas and Eliza were at church and called in at Mr. Truesdell’s and went down to George’s place. James came up this morning and George brought us up in his sleigh tonight.

Sunday, 14th February, 1836. This is a fine day but cold and my wife and Henry are gone down to George’s place and John Pollock is here and Dowler was here a while.

Sunday, 21st February, 1836. ………. my wife was down at George’s place and then she went …….. John Pollock was here most of the day and David Petrie was here …….. thawed today some. Mary is still at George’s since Monday last. Wm. and Thom. came home tonight.

Sunday, 28th February, 1836. This is a fine day but cold and I am very bad with a boil still and James came up this forenoon and Mr. Dowler and Mr. Marlin were here and George came up as his child is very poorly as yet.

Sunday, 6th March, 1836. This is a very stormy cold day and my wife, Henry, Joseph and Eliza are at Church and John and James came up shortly after as he is 25 years old today. My back is getting better thank God.

Sunday, 13th March, 1836. This is a fine day but cold and James came up this morning and we hear that George’s child is very poorly indeed. George was up here. My wife has a swollen face from the Cold. James and Susan Brown were here getting Ink and paper. Comes on to snow to night.

Sunday, 20th March, 1836. This is a fine day and I and some of the children were at Church and behold I saw my Daughter which surprised me that she should have a face to be in Church where she is known and knows the state she lives in. I have been down to George’s and the child is very ill and James is come up this afternoon.

Sunday, 27th March, 1836. This is a mild morning and James is gone over to Ramsey and Henry is over to Mr. Pollock’s. George and his wife and Wm. and his wife and sister and young Boice came and stopped here. My wife is very poorly &c.

Sunday, 3rd April, 1836. This is a fine morning and Henry is down at George’s for a sap barrel and myself, James, Mary and Eliza were over at the Church. The rest of the Family were at Home and the roads are very soft as it thaws fast today. Mrs. Nancy has been in our house today, she has not been in for this 3 YEARS before I believe as she has been unbearable an a bad neighbour but she must comply or keep her own side.

Sunday, 10th April, 1836. This is a terrible stormy day and it storms from the Northward with high wind and snow. Petrie was in a while.

Sunday, 17th April, 1836. This is a fine day and the snow wastes fast and James and Thomas are gone up the Township and I have been to church and my wife is very poorly as she has caught a fresh cold. George his wife and family, Wm., his wife and family were here this evening.

Sunday, 24th April, 1836. This is a very fine day but very cold and James is down at Mr. Allen’s and Mary and myself at church and our cow is much better today. Thomas and Henry are at home. We hear of a great many cattle dying about the settlement and some in the Township as we hear of Mr. Jefferies having 14 head of cattle dying this winter, I called in at Mr. Truesdell’s on my way home. The boys got but very little sap these two days and my wife is a little better today, thank God for it.

Sunday, 8th May, 1836. This is a cold morning but a fine day and I have been to church and the Boys are at different places. Mary and Eliza were at Dowler’s and Mrs. Black’s &c. and old Mrs. Petrie was here a while and most of her Grandchildren with her and we have a number of people here tonight. George Johnson’s cow died this morning.

Sunday, 15th May, 1836. This is a dull morning with a rain shower for a while and a little Thunder and soon cleared up again and John came up and James and Thomas were at Church and John Pollock and Robert Pollock, Mr. Dowler, Mr. Petrie and his wife and Mrs. Gray and James Brown and his two sisters and John and James went to Mr. McGie’s. A fine growiing evening.

Sunday, 22nd May, 1836 This is a dull morning and it comes on to rain about 11 o’clock and the Boys were in the Bush up at some of the Lakes. Comes on heavy rain tonight. George was up for the cart this afternoon.

Sunday, 29th May, 1836 This is a fine drying day and Thomas and I was at church and I was over to Mr. McGie’s on my way home and George’s wife and some of the Boy’s were up and the Petrie’s were here, 4 or 6 of them. Mr. & Mrs. Dowler were here. Wm., his wife and child and sister also were here.

Sunday, 5th June, 1836 …………day and I am terribly bad with the toothache. My wife and Henry wer down at George’s place. Dowler’s cow and pigg were here and Petrie and his wife and some of the children were here. John Pollock and Wm. Marlin, James McCurdy and George were up here this evening. Henry went over to the Village to get me something for my tooth late tonight. All the rest are well, thank God for it.

Sunday, 12th June, 1836 This is a beautiful fine day after the showers and Henry, myself and Eliza were over at the church and I received a letter from Charles and we had several people in here on their way home from Church and old Mr. Holiday and his grandson were here and got a fish hook. Petrie, his wife and his Mother were here on account of a letter about their land and I hope it is n greatly in their favour. My face is very sore as yet.

Sunday, 19th June, 1836 This is the Third Sunday after Trinity and I and Thomas have been to CHURCH. George’s wife and the oldest boy were up. Mrs. Rodgers and her son, Brown’s people, Lindsey, young Petrie were here for a while. Robert Johnson was here. James came home from QUEBEC this morning. All is well, thank God for it and I saw John at the Village and he is well.

Sunday, 26th June, 1836 This is a fine day indeed and Henry and I was at church at the Village and I sent a line to Mr. Pollock for his son John to take to Mrs. Henley in Montreal.

Sunday, 3rd July, 1836 There has been very heavy thunder and lightening with a little rain about midnight last and it is a very fine hot day and I was over at Church and this is the 5th Sunday after Trinity. George was here for our cart. Mrs. O’Neal and Mrs. Petrie was here. Old Dowler was here and our Barley begins to head out.

Sunday, 10th July, 1836 This is a fine day and James and Me was at Church and this is the 6th Sunday after Trinity. Mary is down at George’s place where there is a WEDDING there today and sure enough it is PADDY’S WEDDING where they thought to get married without a Ring. Dowler and Mrs. Petrie were here and Jane, our Wm.’s housekeeper, was here at the time.

Sunday, 17th July, 1836 This is a fine day and our Minister is out, there is no Prayers at the Parsonage House today and this is the 7th Sunday after Trinity and I have had a journey as far as Mr. Cook’s after Mr. Fisher’s mare as she ran off and Henry was after her too. George’s pony broke out several times. George’s wife and two sons were up here and my wife was over at Petrie’s and Dowler was here a while. Mr. Fisher went off home this afternoon. The flies are very bad.

Sunday, 24th July, 1836 This is a fine rainy shower this morning and we have Mr. Dowler here a while and Wm., his wife and child and her Maid Servant and George was here for the cart &c.

Sunday, 31st July, 1836 This is a fine growing day with the wind from the Southward and James and Henry are at Mr. Jeffries Church as this is the first day of Preaching in it.My head has been very dizzy the first of the morning. Our Bull has been through the crop this forenoon, we had some trouble to get him out.

Sunday, 7th Augt, 1836 This is a fine day we took up some new potatoes for the first meal this season. Lion has broken out of the Pasture into the Barley 3 days running. He has gotten into mischief. Dowler was here awhile this morning. This is the 10th Sunday after Trinity.

Sunday, 14th Augt, 1836 This is a fine shower this morning and my (wife is over at James) Marlins and almost every day as the Child is very bad from the scald she got. This is the 11th Sunday after Trinity. My wife and I were down at George’s place awhile.

Sunday, 21st Augt, 1836 There was a white frost this morning and showers most of the day and at night came on athunder storm. George was here for the cart and he had Mary down with him and the Petrie boy was here for flour &c. This is the 12th Sunday after Trinity.

Sunday, 28th Augt, 1836 This is a fine day. George came up here early and took Mary and Eliza down with him to keep house while they go to the Township to Mrs. Coultra. John Pollock was here awhile. My wife was over at James Marlin’s seeing the child and at old Mrs. Petrie’s as she is poorly from a hurt she got.

Sunday, 4th Sept., 1836 This is a wet day and the boys were boiling all night at their Potash. 14th Sunday after Trinity. James is gone up to Mr. Holliday’s &c.

Sunday, 11th Sept., 1836 This is a wet morning and it rained all last night and it comes on a fine day and we went to church 5 of us and our John came up a while and J Pollock was here and my wife and the children were over to Mrs. Petrie’s. This is the 15th Sunday after Trinity.

Sunday, 18th Sept., 1836 This is a fine day after the rain and the pigs and the cattle are troublesome. H.Law,, J.Marlin and Mr. Dunn were here for the flour and my wife and some of the boys and the girls are at Church and young Petrie started with them and old Dowler was in here and paid me a plug of tobacco he was due to me. This is the 16th Sunday after Trinity.

Sunday, 25th Sept., 1836 This is a fine day and Brown’s girls called in on their way to Church and two of our boys and two of the girls went to Mr. Jeffries church and I was there. The bears are plentiful in people’s oats and our cattle have been troublesome. 17th Sunday after Trinity.

Sunday, 2nd Octr. 1836 This is a very wet morning and I was at Church. The rest of the family did not go. It cleared up about the middle of the day. Blows hard from the Southwest. This is the 18th Sunday after Trinity. The cattle are in mischief.

Sunday, 9th Octr. 1836 This is a fine day and we were at Church, 3 of us and called in at Mr Truesdell’s. Gowan (Gaun ) Brown’s wife and her sister, Petrie’s wife and George’s wife were here and old Mr Dowler was in.

Sunday, 16th Octr., 1836 This was a wet day and I was over at the village at the Church house and Thomas was up the Township seeing Wm. Tye as his arm is very bad. I subscribed 5/- towards the English Church

Sunday, 23rd Octr., 1836 This is a fine day and we have been over to the Village and we had our John up a while, George and several other people.

Sunday, 30th Octr., 1836 This is a frosty morning but a fine day and …………..was here to get a line written and James is gone up the township and Nancy Brown was at our house this forenoon a while and Miss Joole (Poole?) was here with her. Nancy Brown has six BOOKS of ours and we had several people call in the afternoon.

Sunday, 6th., Novr.,1836 This is a fine day and Thomas & myself were about home awhile then my wife & me & Joseph were over at Mr. Reid’s lot that I bought the other day. We had several people in today and Joseph has been down to George’s. Mary went down to George’s this evening.

Sunday, 13th., Novr.,1836 This is a fine day after the rain and Henry came up from the Mill as he stopped at George’s last night. Some of the Brown girls were here and John Pollock was here and our boys some of them were up there a while tonight.

Sunday, 20th.,Novr.,1836 This is a fine day and James, Mary,Joseph and myself were at church and our John came up and John Pollock was here awhile.

Sunday, 27th., Novr.,1836 This is a fine day but cold……………..James and Joseph and myself were over at church.

Sunday, 4th., Decr.,1836 This is a fine day with a little snow and all were about the house today. John Pollock was here most of the day.

Sunday, 11th., Decr.,1836 This was a fine morning and I and my wife James and Henry and Mary were at church and I gave Mr. Reid one dollar towards the church and gave Daniel Truesdell 5 shillings on account and George, his wife and family and Wm. his wife and family, John Pollock, Edward Greening were here. Our stove pipes took fire and set fire to the roof of the house

Sunday, 18th., Decr.,1836 This is a fine day but cold wind from the northward and the roads are all drifted up.

Sunday, 25th., Decr.,1836 This is a snowy day and James, Thomas, Henry, Joseph and Mary are at church, my wife, myself and Eliza are at home. George his wife and family were here and Wm. and his wife and family were here according to Custom at this season of the year.

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Preaching in the Early Days – At Leskard and Powers Schoolhouse

Reminiscences by Mr. R. Hutchison, Collector of Customs at Listowel.

Mr. Editor

The Orono News has just fallen into my hands in which Rev. W. H. Adams has been writing up the Hutchison family of which I claim to be a member, being born at the old homestead on the 8th concession of Clarke, in 1836.

As I read the article it brought back to my mind many of the memories of the past and of those early days in the then wilderness. The old cart Rev. Adams speaks of, I can remember seeing it after it was broken, in Jacob Purdy’s woods.

There was no schoolhouses or churches in then neighbourhood at the time. The Wesleyan Methodists preached in my father’s house. There were meetings also held at Kirby or what was then called Power’s School House, and if I remember right the Episcopal Methodists preached there. Thomas Best and wife, the Thorntons and Griffins worshipped with Episcopal Methodists of Power’s Schoolhouse, now Kirby. The Bests and Griffins being close neighbours often attended preaching in our house and would often stay to class meeting, my father being leader.

The two societies got along splendidly together and had grand meetings. They would have prayer meeting on Wednesday night in our house then the next in Griffins house, and I believe today they were prayer meetings of the right kind. They had not to be coaxed or asked to pray but sometimes two and three would be engaged praying with all their might at the same time, and sometime one and two conversions. Yes I have seen them laying on the floor clapping their hands and praising the Lord at the top of their voices. I can remember one night they all got so happy and so engaged, I, a little fellow, got scared, commenced to cry, and climbed up a runged ladder right to the top, the way we had of getting up stairs and hung there for dear life till the meeting was over.

The preacher that was then on the circuit with the Wesleyan Methodists was removed and Rev. Alva Adams came on, and dark and sad days came as he seemed to be possessed with any amount of bigotry. He commenced right away to find fault with my father for allowing Thomas Best and his wife, and Griffin and his wife, meeting in class only because they were Episcopal Methodists. And allow me to say just here, Thomas Best, especially, was considered, and is till this day one of the best men that ever lived in the township of Clarke. I will venture all the old settlers now in Clarke will say the same thing of him that knew him. You would hardly think it to be true that he told my father that it was a sin to meet with the Episcopal Methodists.

It was some time during the Conference year that he preached in our house, his text was “Confess your faults one to another that you may be healed”. Father was greatly encouraged while he preached, thought he had changed his mind, but after he got through preaching he sat down at the table and commenced to renew their tickets. He had only filled out two or three when he turned and asked my father if he allowed the Episcopals (Bests and Griffins) to meet in class. Father said yes. He thereupon threw down the pen and jumped up and said to my father “I’ll tell you very plainly if you are going to allow Tom, Dick and Harry to meet with you I will be your pastor no longer,” and took his horse and left. I can remember it distinctly although but a very small boy. Some were shedding tears.

Father waited for nine months and no preacher came back to preach. He went then and invited the Episcopal Methodist preachers who preached at Powers Schoolhouse, Rev. William Cope and G.P. Harris to come. At this time they had got a schoolhouse put up in what is now called Leskard, and they preached in it.

They were counted two very fine preachers. G. P. Harris being a real Irishman, full of wit and energy, though somewhat eccentric, was named the “Wild Irishman”. Frequently while preaching he would get so engaged he would throw off his coat and preach in his shirtsleeves. There was no lamps those days to light up the schoolhouse, but ten brackets were fixed on the walls around, with sockets to place candles in, and those who were best off were expected to fetch a candle with them to help light up with.

One night while the Irishman was preaching the house was not very well lit up, a Mrs. Bradley came with a candle and went up and put it on the pulpit. Harris in preaching spoke right out and said the sinner was just like that woman’s candle – there was no light in it. It was immediately lit.

Another time he went to preach, but I think this was at Power’s Schoolhouse, and there happened to be no candles brought at all. Harris got up and gave out his text; “ye men love darkness rather than light because your deeds are evil”, and preached a splendid sermon, in the dark. They always had light after that.

My father was immediately put in Class Leader in M.E. Church and remained a loyal and devoted leader in that church for some fifteen years, till the time of his death. After father, bringing in the Episcopal preachers, when the schoolhouse was built, the Wesleyan preachers came back and preached in it too. Osborne and Ham I think, were the first two after Adams left, and came and made their stopping place at my father’s house, but their influence did not cause my father to go back to the old Wesleyan Church as he was better suited in the M.E. Church.

Any of the Thorntons, Powers or Billings of the old settlers now living down there will remember a great deal of what I have written.

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Adze – a hand tool with a heavy steel blade attached at right angles to a wooden handle, used for the dressing of timber.

Apothecary shop – an archaic word for drug store or pharmacy.

Bairn – a common Scottish idiom for a child.

Bed tick – a strong cotton fabric, often striped, used as a mattress cover.

Berlin, Ontario – settled largely by people of German origin. In 1916, torn apart by the tensions of World War One, the thriving peaceful city changed its name to Kitchener. Many wished to distance themselves from the stigma attached to the name of the German capital while others remained silent for fear of being accused of enemy sympathies.

Bob sleigh – a sleigh with a moveable front bob or steering mechanism that enables the rider to direct it down a steep bank. Also used to describe larger sleighs pulled by a team of horses.

Bolster – a long narrow pillow or cushion.

Bootjack – a wedge-shaped device that grips the heel of a boot to enable the foot to be withdrawn easily.

Cannon bone – a bone in the legs of horses and other hoofed animals consisting of a greatly elongated fused metatarsal.

Carbolic soap – a rough soap made with a disinfectant ingredient.

Cocoa – a powder made from cocoa beans after they have been roasted and ground; used in a hot drink made from cocoa and milk.

Chancel – the part of a church building containing the altar and choir.

Cistern pump – a hand pump, often in a farm kitchen, which pumped water from a tank or cistern in the basement. This concrete reservoir was filled by rainwater that drained off the roof.

Colporteur – a church employee who distributes Scriptures and other religious materials, often door to door.

Copper flashing – a thin metal sheet used to weatherproof the valley between the slopes of a roof or the junction between a chimney and a roof.

Communion rail – the railing around the altar area where people kneel to receive communion.

Cooper – a person skilled in making or repairing barrels or casks.

Corduroy – a heavy cotton pile fabric with lengthways ribs. Similarly, a corduroy road was made by laying logs side by side and tightly together. These were placed crossways over swampy areas of the road bed and covered with gravel.

Corncob doll – a decorative figure made of a corn cob and plaited straw.

Cradle grain – a framework of several wooden fingers attached to a scythe to gather the grain into bunches as it is cut.

Crazy quilt – a quilt made of random pieces of rich, colourful fabric and blanket stitched.

Curry – to brush or groom a horse.

Cutter – a type of sleigh with curved runners instead of wheels, pulled by a single horse over the snow.

Democrat – a style of buggy that had two or three parallel bench seats.

Dresden plate quilt – a quilt sewn in the design of elaborate fluted circles.

Driver – a light driving horse kept for pulling a buggy or cutter on the road, in contrast with the more ponderous draught breeds used for heavy farm work.

Drugget – a coarse fabric.

Eaton Beauty doll – an elegant doll made with head and hands of fine porcelain and outfitted in a velvet and silk dress; offered for sale in Eaton’s catalogue.

Eiderdown – the breast down of the female eider duck, used for stuffing pillows, quilts etc.

Face cord – a pile of cut and stacked firewood 16″ deep by 4 feet high and 8 feet long; one-third of a standard 128 cubic foot bush cord.

Farrier – a person who shoes horses or another name for a veterinary surgeon.

Fortnight – a period of fourteen consecutive nights; two weeks.

Flannels – bed sheets made of a soft light wool fabric.

Galloping consumption – a rapid wasting away of the tissues of the body, especially in tuberculosis of the lungs.

Gangway – the sloped mound of earth allowing access to the upper floor of a bank barn.

Gargling oil – a medicinal liquid used to reduce infection and inflamation of the throat.

Grog – diluted spirit, usually rum, as an alcoholic drink.

Groomsman – a man who attends the bridegroom at a wedding, usually the best man.

Hame strap – the strap connected to the two curved bars holding the traces of the harness and attached to the collar of a draught animal.

Hand – a unit of length equalling four inches used for measuring the height of a horse at its withers (taken from a man’s standard handbreadth).

Horehound – a bitter herb of the mint family with small white flowers that contain a bitter juice formerly used as cough syrup or flavouring; sometimes used in the making of a hard candy.

Icebox – an insulated cabinet packed with ice for storing food.

Indian summer – a period of unusually warm weather in the late autumn.

Jerkin – a sleeveless short jacket worn by men or women.

Joiner – a person skilled in making finished woodwork, such as windows, stairs, caskets.

Kohlrabi – a variety of cabbage whose thickened stem is eaten as a vegetable; common during pioneer times.

Kneeler – a hinged bench on which a worshipper knelt during portions of the church service, normally attached to the pew in front.

Lectionary – a book containing appointed readings to be used in church services throughout the year.

Leg-of-mutton – a sleeve or sail, tapering sharply.

Lemon balm – a perennial mint with white or yellowish flowers and aromatic leaves; used in flavouring food, liqueur, tea and medicines.

Looking glass – an archaic word for mirror.

Mangling laundry – the process of squeezing the wash water out of the clothes by passing them between two heavy rollers.

Mercator’s map – a map commonly used in classrooms of 1904, named after the Flemish cartographer and mathematician Gerardus Mercator. (1512 – 1594)

Merino – a particularly fine wool from a breed of sheep originating in Spain.

Mow – the upper part of a barn where hay or straw is stored; the term can also refer to the pile of hay or straw itself.

Murther – an archaic or obsolete variation of the word ‘murder.’

Muslin – a fine plain-weave cotton fabric, available in a variety of weights. Book muslin was one of the most delicate varieties, gauzy and stiff, almost always used for girls rather than women. A white dress of book muslin with a wide, coloured sash was typical party wear.

Nightjar – any of a family of nocturnal birds which have large eyes and feed on insects.

Pacer – a horse trained to move his legs in a particular gait.

Page-wire fence – a common term for a woven wire fence that has rectangles in the shape of a page.

Parlour – a Victorian sitting room, especially one kept tidy for the reception of visitors.

Pin money – money saved or earned by women for incidental purchases, often in coins or small denominations of paper currency.

Pinafore – an apron-like garment, usually with a bib, buttoned or tied at the back and worn over a dress.

Pitch holes – soft holes in the built-up layers of hard-packed snow, often appearing during a thaw. Caused by the horses’ shoes and the runners of passing sleighs and cutters, they were potentially dangerous if they were sharp and deep enough to make a horse stumble or to lodge the runners.

Pocketbook – a leather pocket purse formerly used by men.

Prior – the head of a priory or other religious house; in an abbey, the person next below the abbot.

Quoined corners – the alternating large squared stones or raised brick panels set in the external corner of a building. In early Ontario homes, these were often yellow or buff bricks placed in the corner of a red brick wall for decorative effect.

Rag and bone man – a man who buys and sells discarded clothing and other household items.

Rainwater leader – the metal pipe used to carry rainwater from the eave trough to the ground or rain barrel.

Razor strop – a leather strap used to sharpen razors; often used to mete out corporal punishment to children at the turn of the 20th century.

Rod – a unit of length equal to 16 ½ feet. Most 100 acre pioneer farms measured 80 rods by 200 rods.

Rubbers – a rubberized waterproof overshoe.

Sailor King – a common epithet used of King William the Fourth well-known for his love of the high seas. (August 21, 1765 – June 20, 1837)

Scythe – a long-handled tool for cutting tall grass, hay or weeds; having a curved sharpened blade that moves parallel to the ground.

Shakedown – a pioneer term for a bed, particularly a makeshift one.

Shanks’ pony – one’s own legs as a means of transportation.

Sheaves – the plural of sheaf which is a bundle of reaped but unthreshed grain tied with one or two bands.

Shinplaster – a piece of paper money of small face value, usually twenty-five cents; printed in 1870, 1900 and 1923.

Shoofly Pie – a Pennsylvania Dutch recipe containing flour, brown sugar and shortening covered with molasses, eggs, soda and hot water.

Sir John A. – an abbreviation for Sir John A. Macdonald, the first prime minister of Canada. (1815 – 1891) Born in Glasgow Scotland, this pragmatic but visionary statesman was a picturesque and colourful leader and one of the Fathers of Confederation.

Soffits – the underside of an overhanging eave on a building.

Spiles – a spout or rigid tube for tapping sap from the sugar maple tree; inserted into a hole that has been drilled in the trunk of the tree.

Spool bed – a bed with a wooden headboard and footboard made of turned spindles.

Stooking – the work of setting clusters of sheaves upright in a field to dry the heads of grain.

Stone boat – a low solidly-built wooden sledge used to gather stones from the fields; drawn by horses.

Stone pig – a corked container made of crockery and filled with hot water to provide warmth under blankets or covers.

Stuck pig – an expression describing a hog that has been killed by sticking a knife into its heart in the butchering process.

Sweating like a hen drawing rails – a humorous rural idiom describing extreme perspiration. Normally a team of horses would have been used to pull or draw fence rails.

Taking a turn – a rural idiom meaning to experience a sharp change in health, usually a deterioration.

Toadflax – a perennial plant having narrow leaves and spurred two-lipped yellow-orange flowers. Also called butter-and-eggs.

Travelling a stallion – an expression referring to the business of taking a stallion of exceptional bloodlines from farm to farm to breed mares. Usually the stallion was led behind a driving horse and buggy.

Throwing a foal – giving birth to a foal.

Valenciennes lace – a flat bobbin lace typically having scroll and floral designs and originally made of linen; first made in Valenciennes, a town in northern France.

Waist – a girl’s or woman’s blouse often with long sleeves and hooked or buttoned in the back.

Wedding ring quilt – a hand-pieced quilt sewn in the pattern of entwined wedding rings.

Wheat smut – a fungal disease of grain in which black sooty masses of spores cover the affected parts.

Wicket – a small window or opening, especially one fitted with a glass or grate; often used at train stations to sell tickets.

Wincey – a flimsy inexpensive fabric made of cotton or flannelette and used in everyday clothing during pioneer times.

Windrow – a long row of hay that has been raked into a low ridge to achieve the best conditions for drying or curing.

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from the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica



Chautauqua, a village on the west shore of Chautauqua Lake in the town of Chautauqua, Chautauqua County, New York, U.S.A. Pop. of the town (1900), 3590; (1905) .3505~ (1910) 3515; of the village (1908) about 750. The lake is a beautiful body of water over 1300 ft. above sea-level, 20 m. long, and from a few hundred yards to 3 m. in width. The town of Chautauqua is situated near the north end and is within easy reach by steamboat and electric car connexions with the main railways between the east and the west. The town is known almost solely as being the permanent home of the Chautauqua Institution, a system of popular education founded in 1874 by Lewis Miller (1829—1899) of Akron, Ohio, and Bishop John Heyl Vincent (b. 1832). The village, covering about three hundred acres of land, is carefully laid out to provide for the work of the Institution.

Rev. John Heyl Vincent D.D.
Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, U.S.A., and Chancellor of Chatauqua.

The Chautauqua Institution began as a Sunday-School Normal Institute, and for nearly a quarter of a century the administration was in the hands of Mr Miller, who was responsible for the business management, and Bishop Vincent, who was head of the instruction department. Though founded by Methodists, in its earliest years it became non-sectarian and has furnished a meeting-ground for members of all sects and denominations.

At the very outset the activities of the assembly were twofold: (I) the conducting of a summer school for Sunday-school teachers, and (2) the presentation of a series of correlated lectures and entertainments. Although the movement was and still is primarily religious, it has always been assumed that the best religious education must necessarily take advantage of the best that the educational world can afford in the literatures, arts and sciences.

The scope of the plan rapidly broadened, and in 1879 a regular group of schools with graded courses of study was established. At about the same time, also, the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle, providing a continuous home-reading system, was founded. The season lasts during June, July and August.

In 1907 some 325 lectures, concerts, readings and entertainments were presented by a group of over 190 lecturers, readers and musicians, while at the same time 200 courses in the summer schools were offered by a faculty of instructors drawn from the leading colleges and normal schools of the country.

The Chautauqua movement has had an immense influence on education in the United States, an influence which is especially marked in three directions: (I) in the establishment of about 300 local assemblies or “Chautauquas” in the United States patterned after the mother Chautauqua; (2) in the promotion of the idea of summer education, which has been followed by the founding of summer schools or sessions at a large number of American universities, and of various special summer schools, such as the Catholic Summer School of America, with headquarters at Cliff Haven, Clinton county, New York, and the Jewish Chautauqua Society, with headquarters at Buffalo, N.Y., and (3) in the establishment of numerous correspondence schools patterned in a general way after the system provided by the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle.

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